Paper NO.31: Models of co-creation

Paper NO.31

Models of co-creation
Jotte I.J.C. De Koning, Marcel R.M. Crul, Renee Wever

This paper aims to give an overview of the existing models of co-creation and create metamodels from these existing ones. The existing models were found in academic and popular or business publications. A total of 50 models was analysed and clustered and used to create 4 meta-models of co-creation. These meta-models depict the ‘joint space of co-creation’, ‘the co-creation spectrum’, ‘the co-creation types’ and ‘the co-creation steps’. They form a framework to classify existing research as well as define boundaries for upcoming projects. These meta-models should contribute to the clarity, understanding and application of cocreation.