How participation is practiced? â€“Extension of Participatory Design Model
Mika Yasuoka-Jensen, Takahito Kamihira
Last few years, we have witnessed of an increased value of stakeholder participation on service design. In spite of the attention to the participation on design, we have only a limited common ground what participation means. Participants, definition, process, purpose and expectation of participation are varied from practice to practice, and consequently suggested best methods were different. However we call them all as participation and not explicitly articulated its meanings in a relative scale. Seeing varied participation metamorphoses as an indispensable contribution for a further advancement of service design community, this paper introduces one way of identifying participation with a conceptual diagram. Our diagram is to provide a springboard for constructive discussion among service design researchers, practitioners as well as participants themselves, by identifying and clarifying characteristics of participation in four styles with five aspects.